The Eastern Shores Library System board of trustees is a fifteen member group with statutory authority to oversee all operations and activities of the system. Trustee terms are for three years, with appointments made by the various county board chairs with approval of the full county boards. One member is from each County Board, two members from each county are participating library board members, one is a library board member of the resource library and the members-at-large are roughly proportional to population.
The ESLS board meets seven times per year, at 4:30 pm on the last Monday of January, February, April, July, August, September and November. Unless otherwise noted, meetings are conducted at the Eastern Shores Library System office.